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Education System Of India

Today India is the second largest higher education network in the world. India has been a global destination for education for a long time.

Universities in India are set up by the Central or State Governments by means of legislation, while colleges are established by the State Governments or private bodies / trusts. All colleges are affiliated to some university.

Types of universities
Central or State Universities -- while the former are funded directly by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, the latter are set up and funded by the various state governments.

Deemed Universities -- are university-level institutions that are established or designated by Acts of Parliament and funded by the Central Government. These include the Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, etc.

Most universities are 'affiliating universities', which prescribe to the affiliated colleges the admission criteria and courses of study, hold examinations and award degrees. University departments impart postgraduate education and conduct and promote research in a variety of disciplines. Undergraduate and, to some extent, postgraduate instruction is imparted by the colleges affiliated to a particular university.

Classification of Colleges
Colleges in India come under four different categories. This categorization is done on the basis of the kind of courses offered by them (professional/ vocational) / their ownership status( Private/ Government) or their relationship with the university (affiliated/university owned).

University Colleges
These colleges are managed by the university itself and situated mostly in the university campus

Government Colleges
The government colleges are few, only about 15-20 percent of the total. They are managed by state governments. As in case of other colleges, the university to which these colleges are affiliated, conducts their examination, lays down the courses of studies and awards the degrees.

Professional Colleges
The professional colleges are mostly in the disciplines of medicine, engineering and management. There are few for other disciplines too. They are sponsored and managed either by the government or by private initiative.

Privately Managed colleges
About 70% of the colleges are founded by the privately owned trusts or societies. But these institutes are also governed by the rules and regulations of the university they are affiliated to. Though initially started up as a private initiative, the state government also funds these colleges.

Courses offered at Higher Education Level
Various courses offered by Indian Universities
Engineering and Technology
Mechanical engineering
Civil engineering
Computer Sciences,
Electronic & electrical engineering
Information Technology,
Biotechnology and Bio-informatics.
Medical Dental,
Nursing,
Pharmacy and Paramedical.
Agriculture / Veterinary Sciences, Dairy Technology and Fisheries.
Arts & Fine Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences,
Commerce, Science and Management.
Hotel Management & Catering Technology,
Travel and Tourism.
Fashion Design & Technology.
The academic programmes are offered at Vocational Diploma, Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Doctoral levels.

Postgraduate Courses
Postgraduate Courses in Arts, Science, Engineering and Medicine are usually for two years ending with the award of a Master's degree. In some specialized fields for instance, for a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) degree, the possession of a Bachelor's degree in any discipline is required before admission can be obtained.Some universities and higher institutes offer a diploma or a certificate course of shorter duration courses in disciplines like Engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Computer Technology. However the duration of these courses varies from university to university.

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